الكاتب: Multiple References
Comparison of the visceral analgesic effects of xylazine, morphine, butorphanol, pentazocine, meperidine, dipyrone, and flunixin in a cecal distention model of colic pain indicated that xylazine produces the most relief from abdominal discomfort. Repeated administration of xylazine may reduce visceral pain so effectively that the seriousness of abdominal disease is obscured. Xylazine decreased propulsive motility in the jejunum and pelvic flexure of healthy ponies. Morphine and butorphanol also gave relief from visceral pain in the cecal distention model. Morphine may inhibit colonic, and butophanol jejunal, motility. Whether xylazine or opiate mediated decreases in gut motility cause clinically important slowing of ingesta transit is controversial and requires further investigation. The development of behavioral changes (i.e., apprehension and pawing) in horses given opiate therapy may limit the use of these drugs. Combinations of xylazine and morphine or butorphanol produce excellent, safe, visceral analgesia and sedation without untoward behavioral effects. Although flunixin fails to demonstrate good visceral analgesic effects in the cecal distention model, this drug produces analgesia in some cases of colic by blocking prostaglandin mediated induction of pain. 1mpro;ement of propulsive gut motility in patients with ileus may follow administration of neostigmine (which is particularly effective when the large bowel is hypomotile), naloxone (which experimentally stimulates propulsive colonic motility), and metoclopramide (which stimulates stomach and proximal small intestinal motility). (Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1988; 2935-91)
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